Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)


1- Reported Speech in English:


 the Reported Speech or 'Indirect Speech'use when we are telling what someone says or said .

2- Reported Speech Uses:


I-We use the Reported Speech when the reporting verb maybe in the Present or in the Past.



a- If it is in the present tense,there are no tense changes  .

b- If it is in the past tense, there are tense, person and place changes.



3- Reported Speech ( Indirect Speech) Examples:

Direct speech :

 Mary : “ I am a teacher ”

Reported speech ( Present ) :

 Mary says ( that ) she is a teacher .

Reported speech ( Past ) :

 Mary said ( that ) she was a teacher .

II- To report a statement we use the reporting verbs :


 a - Say + something :

 Camilla said she liked being a mother


  b - Tell + someone + something :

Camilla told me she liked being a mother


III-  Other reporting verbs :


Claim , explain , reply , announce , declare and promise .



Note : The conjunction “ That’’ can be omitted

4- Reported Speech Rules:

You should to mind about the type of sentences when you use Reported Speech,types are :

5-Reported Imperatives ( Indirect Imperatives )



I- Imperative clause change into infinitive clause preceded by a verb like :


Warn , order , tell , command , advise and recommend .

6-Reported Imperatives Examples :


Mother : “ Take care .’’

The mother recommended her son to take care .

II- Negative Imperatives ( Not ) goes before the infinitive .

7-Negative Imperatives Examples :


Teacher : “ Don’t make stupid mistakes in the exam.’’

The teacher advised his students not to make stupid mistakes in the exam .

8-Reported Questions ( Indirect Questions ).

I-When we report questions we can use the reporting verbs :


            Want to know , ask , inquire and wonder .
II- In reported questions we use the same word order as in statement : Subject + Verb  .

9-Questions in Reported Speech Examples :

      Sarah : “ How are you ?’’

      Sarah asked Camilla how she was .


III- Yes / No questions : are reported with if or whether

 Examples :

Sarah : “ Do you have a dream car , Camilla ? ’’

Sarah asked Camilla if / whether she had a dream car .

IV - Wh – Questions are reported with the same question word used in the direct question .

Examples :

Sarah : “ Which one do you prefer , Camilla ?’’

Sarah asked Camilla which one she preferred 

10-Reported Commands and Requests:

I- Commands and Requests  are Formed :

To + infinitive ( Affirmative )


Not + to + infinitive ( Negative)

Commands Examples :

- Commands ( Affirmative ) : 

👉 Do your homework

👉 My mother told me to do my homework .

- Commands ( Negative) : 

👉 Don’t play in the street.

👉 "Mother told her child not to play "

 Requests Examples:

- Request ( Affirmative ) : 

👉  Could you close the door please.

👉  He  asked me to close the door .

-Request ( Negative) :

👉 Would you mind not closing the door.

👉 She requested me.



11-Exceptions Reported Speech:


1-Blame :



 👉 It is your fault you should have closed the door 



 👉 He blamed him for not having closed the door.


2-Suggest :

 👉 “What about going out together.’’

  👉  He suggested going out together.

3-Apologize for :

 👉  “I’m sorry I’m late .’’

 👉  She apologize for being late .

4 - Confess :

👉 “I’am responsible , I spoil the meeting.’’

👉 She confessed having spoil the meeting.

5-Describe …as :

👉 “She is nice and pretty.”

 👉 They described her as a nice and pretty .

12- Table for Change in Tense of Reported Speech for all Tenses:



Direct Speech
Reported Speech
Present Simple                                  
Sarah said : I want to be a teacher

Present Continuous

"Iam going to the party’’,Sarah said

Simple Past

Tala : “ I worked as cook in a hotel’’

Present Perfect

Sarah : “ tala has given up her job’’

PresentPerfect Continuous

“I have been writing my review”
Adam said.

Future

Sarah said : “ I will be a teacher someday’’

Modals: can,may,must

The teacher said : “ You can do this homework guys’’

Tala said “ I must find a job’’

Sarah said “ Adam may go to the party’’
Simple Past

Sarah said ( that) she wanted to be ateacher

Past continuous

Sarah said (that) she was going to
the party.

Past Perfect

Tala said that she had worked as a cooker in a hotel

Past Perfect

Sarah said( that) tala had given up her job

Past Perfect  Continuous

Adam said that he had been writing
his review

Conditional

Sarah said that she would be a
teacher someday

Had to ; could ; might

The teacher said guys could do that homework

Tala said that she had to find a job

Sarah said that Adam might go to the party




Pay attention :

a- The verb used to and the models would , could , should and might to do not change in the Reported speech


b- Verbs in the Past Continuous ,Past Perfect and Conditional undergo no tense change



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